Little Turtle defeated General Arthur St. Clair in 1791 during the Northwest Indian War, also called Little Turtle's war. The 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War (a war in which American Indian tribes were overwhelmingly allied with the British and were treated as defeated powers, following the American victory over the British), recognized United States sovereignty of all the land east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes. Under the command of General St. Clair, more than 900 American soldiers were killed and almost 300 wounded. Arthur St. Clair attained the rank of major general during the American Revolution. In 1791 a second force of 3,000 men under General Arthur St. Clair carelessly pitched camp south of the Maumee River with few guards the night of November 3. The American Indians had soundly defeated St. Clair's army. He took part in George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River on the night of December 25–26, 1776, before the Battle of Trenton on the morning of December 26. By: Stanley L. Klos. Little is known of his early life. [4] The court exonerated him and he returned to duty,[4] although he was no longer given any battlefield commands. I wanted to make that clear straight away, as the latter half of this story discusses several mistakes he made which temporarily set back the western half of the United States. Omissions? This led President Thomas Jefferson to remove him from office as territorial governor. By the mid-1770s, St. Clair considered himself more of an American than a British subject. The tide was reversed three years later, however, at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1736]– August 31, 1818) was an American soldier and politician. Major General Arthur St. Clair From Bob Stevens we find web pages about Major General Arthur St Clair, who was a friend of George Washington, a general in the United States Army, president of Congress, and governor of the Northwest Territories.He came from Thurso in Caithness, Scotland.. We also have a legend and much other information about his daughter, Louisa, some information about … The location was in the Old Northwest Territory, which included today’s Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and parts of Minnesota. During the American Revolutionary War, he rose to the rank of major general in the Continental Army, but lost his command after a controversial retreat from Fort Ticonderoga. The little river town was not quite three years old and was home to only 100 or so settlers. The high point of Arthur St. Clair's long military career, which began when he was a young British officer in the French and Indian War, ... Washington's army followed St. Clair's plan and defeated the British at Princeton the following morning. He was appointed a brigadier general in August 1776, and was sent by Gen. George Washington to help organize the New Jersey militia. Confederation warriors silently infiltrated the sleeping camp and mounted a surprise attack the next morning, killing more than 600 militiamen. Under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which created the Northwest Territory, General St. Clair was appointed governor of what is now Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, along with parts of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Under the command of General St. Clair, 900 American soldiers were killed and 350 wounded. One month later, near modern-day Fort Recovery, his force advanced to the location of Native American settlements near the headwaters of the Wabash River, but on November 4 they were routed in battle by a tribal confederation led by Miami Chief Little Turtle and Shawnee chief Blue Jacket. Corrections? 1736] – August 31, 1818) was an American soldier and politician. This is a laid, watermarked, and rag-content 1772 document with some separation at folds, small holes at intersection of folds and along folds, and a stain. It might have been the day Cincinnati died. The peoples who spoke Iroquoian languages occupied a continuous territory around Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Erie…. They were aided by British collaborators Alexander McKee and Simon Girty. St. Clair's defeat, also known as the Battle of the Wabash, the Battle of Wabash River or the Battle of a Thousand Slain, was a battle fought on November 4, 1791, in the Northwest Territory of the United States of America. Instead, St. Clair was soundly defeated by the Indians in what has been called the bloodiest battle of pioneer American history. On September 17, 1791, Major-General St. Clair headed north from Cincinnati to establish a fort in Indiana. Born in Thurso, Scotland, he served in the British Army during the French and Indian War before settling in Pennsylvania, where he held local office. More than 600 soldiers and scores of women and children were killed in the battle, which has since borne the name "St. Clair's Defeat", also known as the "Battle of the Wabash", the "Columbia Massacre," or the "Battle of a Thousand Slain". He had been at Washington’s side through most of the Revolution and crossed the Delaware with the future first president. I'm taking a look into Native American battles that you may not have heard about. His small garrison could not resist British General John Burgoyne's larger force in the Saratoga campaign. During the American Revolutionary War, he rose to the rank of major general in the Continental Army, but lost his command after a controversial retreat. "Arthur St. Clair and the Struggle For Power in the Old Northwest, 1763–1803" (Dissertation. In 1778 he was court-martialed for the loss of Ticonderoga. The three-star St Clair Hotel in Sinclair St, Kopper, Kevin Patrick. Despite specific provisions in the Treaty of 1783 for the evacuation of its forts on the northwestern border, Britain had failed to yield these lucrative fur-trading posts. In 1774, the colony of Virginia took claim of the area around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and some residents of Western Pennsylvania took up arms to eject them. He still saw action, however, as an aide-de-camp to General Washington, who retained a high opinion of him. An American Civil War steamer was named USS St. Clair. Arthur St. Clair was a Patriot. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The first punitive expedition, led by General Josiah Harmar in 1790, was ambushed. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. By Thomas E. Buffenbarger, U. S. Army Heritage … Located in present-day Darke County in far western Ohio, the fort was built of wood and intended primarily as a supply depot; accordingly, it was originally named Fort Deposit. The first Ohio Constitution provided for a weak governor and a strong legislature, in part as a reaction to St. Clair's method of governance. St. Clair did so on April 7, 1792, but remained governor of the Northwest Territory. Although an investigation exonerated him, St. Clair resigned his army commission in March 1792 at the request of President Washington, but he continued to serve as Governor of the Northwest Territory.[6][7][8]. The U.S. Army faced the Western Confederacy of Native Americans, as part of the Northwest Indian War. St. Clair was born in Thurso, Caithness, Scotland. In this video I take a look at The Battle Of The Wabash aka St.Clair's Defeat! St. Clair's Campaign of 1791: A Defeat in the Wilderness That Helped Forge Today's U.S. Army. Only a twist of fate saved Cincinnati from a massacre in the days following November 4, 1791. The American Indians had soundly defeated St. Clair's army. Indian morale was temporarily strengthened by St. Clair’s Defeat, and white settlement of Ohio was retarded while frontiersmen clung to the protection of nearby U.S. forts. 1736]– August 31, 1818) was an American soldier and politician. In October 1791 as an advance post for his campaign, Fort Jefferson (Ohio) was built under the direction of General Arthur St. Clair. He named Cincinnati, Ohio, after the Society of the Cincinnati, and it was there that he established his home. Updates? As Governor, he formulated Maxwell's Code (named after its printer, William Maxwell), the first written laws of the territory. In retirement St. Clair lived with his daughter, Louisa St. Clair Robb, and her family on the ridge between Ligonier and Greensburg. St. Clair met Phoebe Bayard, a member of one of the most prominent families in Boston, and they were married in 1760. This force advanced to the location of Indian settlements on the Wabash River, but on November 4 they were routed in battle by a tribal confederation led by Miami Chief Michikinikwa. [1] He reportedly attended the University of Edinburgh before being apprenticed to the renowned physician William Hunter.[1]. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It has been accepted for inclusion in Dissertations by an authorized administrator of Loyola eCommons. Signature is a secretarial Arthur St. Clair on a 14” by 12” document folded into two leaves, text only on pages 1 & 4. In response to the success at Princeton, Washington supported St. Clair throughout the rest of the war even when he made serious mistakes. In 1802, St. Clair remarked the U.S. Congress had no power to interfere in the affairs of those in the Ohio Territory. Saint Clair’s Defeat, (November 4, 1791), one of the worst defeats ever suffered by U.S. forces in Indian warfare, precipitated by British-Indian confrontation with settlers and militia in the Northwest Territory following the American Revolution. In 1757, St. Clair purchased a commission in the British Army, Royal American Regiment, and came to America with Admiral Edward Boscawen's fleet for the French and Indian War. He named Cincinnati, Ohio, after the Society of the Cincinnati, and it was there that he established his home. Born in Scotland, he served in the British Army during the French and Indian War before settling in Pennsylvania, where he held local office. In hopes of reclaiming lost hunting grounds with British support, a Northwest Indian Confederation was gradually molded between 1785 and 1787, consisting mainly of Shawnee, Delaware, Ottawa, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Miami, and Potawatomi. The U.S. casualty rate was… Arthur St. Clair (1734-1818) was governor of the Northwest Territory and administrator of Indian affairs for the western territories from 1787 to 1802. Born in Scotland, he served in the British Army during the French and Indian War before settling in Pennsylvania, where he held local office. Autumn of 1791 - near present day Fort Recovery, Ohio . Lord Dunmore's War eventually settled the boundary dispute. It occurred on November 4th, 1791. Sep 24 Arthur St. Clair's Defeat - Governing the Northwest Indian War. St. Clair, therefore, could only aid General Sullivan in the retreat as second in command under General Thompson. His parents, unknown to early biographers, were probably William Sinclair, a merchant, and Elizabeth Balfour. Kentucky frontiersmen reacted to this threat by initiating raiding parties on native villages as early as 1788, and Indian warfare flared up the following year. The wounded were many, including St. Clair and Capt. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Many biographers credit St. Clair with the strategy that led to Washington's capture of Princeton, New Jersey on January 3, 1777. A portion of the Hermitage, St. Clair's home in Oak Grove, Pennsylvania (north of Ligonier), was later moved to Ligonier, Pennsylvania, where it is now preserved, along with St. Clair artifacts and memorabilia at the Fort Ligonier Museum. Mutual hostilities led to a campaign by General Josiah Harmar, whose 1,500 militiamen were defeated by the Native Americans in October 1790. It would be the largest defeat of American soldiers in the history of the army against Native American forces. Under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which created the Northwest Territory, General St. Clair was appointed governor of what is now Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, along with parts of Wisconsin and Minnesota. He was the largest landowner in Western Pennsylvania. The Defeat of Major General Arthur St. Clair, November 4, 1791: A Study of the Nation's Response, 1791-1793 William Patrick Walsh Loyola University Chicago This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Theses and Dissertations at Loyola eCommons. [3] St. Clair was promoted to major general in February 1777. Kent State University, 2005), This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 22:04. Arthur St. Clair (March 23, 1737 [O.S. Major General Arthur St. Clair (Library of Congress) Many of the eastern Indian tribes supported the British during the American Revolution because they were told the British would stop or severely limit white migration and settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains and south of the Great Lakes. It was called the Battle of the Wabash but also known as St. Clair’s Defeat after Major General Arthur St. Clair, the man who made it happen. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Iroquois, any member of the North American Indian tribes speaking a language of the Iroquoian family—notably the Cayuga, Cherokee, Huron, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora. The St. Clair Expedition of 1791 or Defeat of the U.S. Army against the Miami Tribe & their Allies Commander: Major General Arthur St. Clair. He also sought to end Native American claims to Ohio land and clear the way for white settlement. On April 17, 1759, he received a lieutenant's commission and was assigned under the command of General James Wolfe, under whom he served at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham which resulted in the capture of Quebec City. Whether that would have actually happened is irrelevant because the Americans won and the British allied tribes were forced to move farther west. Arthur St. Clair ({OldStyleDateDY|March 23,|1737|1736}– August 31, 1818) was an American soldier and politician. The Indian tribes in the Old Northwest, however, were not parties to this treaty and many of them, especially leaders such as Little Turtle and Blue Jacket, refuse… Jason Mandresh. His remains are buried under a Masonic monument in St. Clair Park in downtown Greensburg. Time was running out for the Confederation Congress, however; during St. Clair's presidency, the Philadelphia Convention was drafting a new United States Constitution, which would abolish the old Congress. There is much debate over President St. Clair’s Lineage and even his year of birth. He had been assigned to Fort Washington along the north shore of the Ohio River—what one day would become the city of Cincinnati, Ohio—and ordered to raise and train an army of 3,000 men, made up of both regulars and militia. The United States military realised it needed a well-trained standing army following St. Clair's Defeat on November 4, 1791, when a force led by General Arthur St. Clair was almost entirely wiped out by the Western Confederacy near Fort Recovery, Ohio. During his military service, St. Clair was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1780.[5]. He still faced problems with the American Indians. After the war, he served as President of the Continental Congress, which during his term passed the Northwest Ordinance. ... Command on the frontier was given to Arthur St. Clair, an experienced Scottish-born frontier fighter going back to the French and Indian War. [9] He thus played no part in the organizing of the state of Ohio in 1803. President George Washington demanded that St. Clair resign from the army. 1736] – August 31, 1818) was a Scottish-American soldier and politician. St. Clair was a member of the Pennsylvania Council of Censors in 1783, and was elected a delegate to the Confederation Congress, serving from November 2, 1785, until November 28, 1787. We mostly know it as St. Clair’s Defeat. He withdrew his forces and played no further part in the campaign. Miami chief, Little Turtle, defeated St. Clair's troops in an ambush near the Wabash River. Source: Fairfax Downed, Indian Wars of the U.S. Army 1776-1865 (1963), pa. 54-59. Robert Benham. Unfortunately the General was defeated and killed before St. Clair's arrival after the disastrous affair at Three Rivers. In 1789, he succeeded in getting certain Native Americans to sign the Treaty of Fort Harmar, but many native leaders had not been invited to participate in the negotiations, or had refused to do so. However, he was opposed by Ohio Democratic-Republicans for what were perceived as his partisanship, high-handedness, and arrogance in office. Lodge #10 in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1791. A Federalist, St. Clair hoped to see two states made of the Ohio Territory in order to increase Federalist power in Congress. In March 1791, St. Clair succeeded Harmar as commander of the United States Army and was commissioned as a major general. ", George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, National Museum of the United States Army, "Buried in Greensburg, Arthur St. Clair a forgotten Revolutionary", "General Arthur St. Clair, Soldier, Surveyor, Territorial Governor, and Freemason", "About Our Lodge – Nova Caesarea Harmony #2", Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness, Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, African Americans in the Revolutionary War, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arthur_St._Clair&oldid=992748017, Adjutants general of the United States Army, Continental Army officers from Pennsylvania, Continental Army personnel who were court-martialed, Continental Congressmen from Pennsylvania, People from Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, American people of the Northwest Indian War, British military personnel of the French and Indian War, British emigrants to the Thirteen Colonies, Commanding Generals of the United States Army, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with USCongress identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, St. Clair Street in Indianapolis, Indiana. https://www.britannica.com/event/Saint-Clairs-Defeat, Ohio History Society - St. Clair's Defeat. On February 2, 1787, the delegates finally gathered into a quorum and elected St. Clair to a one-year term as President of the Continental Congress. On April 16, 1762, he resigned his commission, and, in 1764, he settled in Ligonier Valley, Pennsylvania, where he purchased land and erected mills. In 1770, St. Clair became a justice of the court, of quarter sessions and of common pleas, a member of the proprietary council, a justice, recorder, and clerk of the orphans' court, and prothonotary of Bedford and Westmoreland counties. Regular Army (United States)-Wikipedia In 1791, St. Clair commanded the American forces in what was the United States's worst ever defeat by the Native Americans. The Miami, Shawnee, and Delaware tribes ended up in what are now the states of Ohio and Indiana, but was in th… Chaos ruled the day in early 1787 with Shays's Rebellion in full force and the states refusing to settle land disputes or contribute to the now six-year-old federal government. St. Clair issued an order for the arrest of the officer leading the Virginia troops. Congress enacted its most important piece of legislation, the Northwest Ordinance, during St. Clair's tenure as president. Stories. It would be the largest defeat of American soldiers in the history of the army against Native American forces. General St. Clair's forces than lost 600 man. Arthur St. Clair (March 23, 1737 [1] [O.S. A fresh regiment of infantry recruits and additional militiamen accompanied the original expeditionary regiment, but, when St. Clair reached the upper part of the Wabash River, his army was defeated by Little Turtle in a deadly ambush. Rather than settling the Native Americans' claims, the treaty provoked them to further resistance in what is also sometimes known as the "Northwest Indian War" (or "Little Turtle's War"). St. Clair did so on April 7, 1792, but remained governor of the Northwest Territory. 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