Ecoscience, 18(2): 130-137. Their pelage color and pattern varies by geography. Eastern Chipmunks eat nuts, acorns, seeds, fungi, fruit. Two black stripes and one white stripe runs down each side of their body, from the neck almost to their tail. Acknowledgements | The tail length of an Eastern Chipmunk is 2.75”-4.3” (7-11 cm). at Young become independent two months after birth. Eastern Chipmunk If you live near woods in the eastern half of the United States, this is the kind of chipmunk you might see. The Eastern Chipmunk is diurnal, except during long periods of freezing or extreme winter weather, when it becomes inactive and remains in the nest. Their burrow is excavated less than one meter below the surface and has interconnected galleries up to 10 meters in length. Litters consist of 2 to 5 altricial young, which are born blind and hairless in underground nests. living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture. They build their nests in underground burrows, and defend a small territory around their home. Chipmunks don't always get along when vying for the nuts humans are passing out! This ground dwelling mammal inhabits open deciduous forests where cover is readily available in the form of stumps, logs or rocky outcrops. Chipmunks mostly forage on the ground, but the… Females stay close to their home burrow with their range sometimes overlapping. Behavior . Once these pouches are full, the Chipmunk returns to its burrow and stores the food in underground chambers to eat during the winter months when food may be scarce. The Eastern chipmunks are quite common throughout their range and don't appear to be threatened, but populations in forests are known to suffer from fragmentation of their natural range. They also are important to spore dispersal for different kinds of fungi. Answer. Kroll, M. 2013. They are not native to Newfoundland, but have been introduced. The Eastern Chipmunk is basically a ground dweller, but will readily climb trees. There is no difference in appearance between males and females. living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns. Breeding A litter of four or five young (range 1 - 9) are born after a gestation period of about 31 days. animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. (Kurta, 1995; Penner and Devenport, 2011), In a study of captive chipmunks, eastern chipmunks demonstrated less success than least chipmunks in cache pilfering behavior. Chipmunks are known to be hibernators, even in the southern parts of their range and by October, each individual has gathered enough seeds to enable it to survive the winter. 1985). Accessed Their tail does not have the bushiness of a tree squirrel. Class: Mammalia Territorial calls lead to aggressive behavior when another individual is present. It lives in a great variety of human generated ecosystems including fence rows, city parks, gardens, cemeteries, and even college campuses. The background color of the upperparts is a grizzled reddish brown, grading into rusty on the rump and flanks. Scientific name: Tamias striatus; Range: Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Québec, eastern Saskatchewan ; Size: 66-115 g; 25.5-26.6 cm long; Description: Eastern Chipmunks have greyish to reddish-brown fur with a distinguishing yellowish to reddish patch on their rump and a white underside. A mature Eastern Chipmunk can breed twice a year, beginning in March, with the first litter of 2-7 (usually 4-5) young being born in April after a 31-day gestation period. Phylum: Chordata Linzey, A. Young open their eyes at 30 days and are weaned at 2 months of age. 2005. Chipmunks: Least Chipmunk; Eastern Chipmunk; Woodchuck/Groundhog; Thirteen-lined ground squirrel ; Squirrel Hunting: The two largest tree squirrels (fox and gray) are by far the most hunted species. and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). The eastern chipmunk is thought to be almost entirely solitary except outside the breeding season when the young are present with mother. The eastern (gray) chipmunk lives where oak trees abound-- which includes most of Minnesota, except for the southwest. As per a study, both chipping and chucking sounds can last for at least 30 minutes. 2001. The eastern chipmunk is found abundantly throughout the middle and eastern sections of the United States. What is the range of the eastern chipmunk? A comparative study of caching and pilfering behavior in two sympatric species, least chipmunks (Tamias minimus) and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). at They are also easily tamed and can make unique pets. October 25, 2012 uses smells or other chemicals to communicate. Breeding males have the largest home range. The chipmunk is usually present on an elevated surface when producing this sound. J. Mamm. The eastern chipmunk’s range in-cludes most of the eastern United States. The geographic range of the Siberian species spans northern Asia, i.e., central Russia to China, Korea, and Japan. Breeding A litter of four or five young (range 1 - 9) are born after a gestation period of about 31 days. Eastern chipmunks cache food but do not have the fat stores to hibernate. Their nest is made out of crushed leaves and measures 30 cm in diameter. Plant-animal interactions and climate: Why do yellow pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus) and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) have such different effects on plants?. The majority of chipmunks live in western North America, with one species in eastern North America and one species in Asia. Michelle Kroll (author), Michigan Technological University, Joseph Bump (editor), Michigan Technological University, Leila Siciliano Martina (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff. Habitat. Mission Statement | The name "chipmunk" comes from the Ojibwe word ajidamoo (or possibly ajidamoonh, the same word in the Ottawa dialect of Ojibwe), which translates literally as "one who descends trees headlong." in 43 homing tests 88 per cent (15 of 17) of the chipmunks returned from points 430 to 1500 feet from home, 57 per cent (12 of 21) from half a mile, and 25 per cent (one of 4) released 1 mile distant. They have a lighter underbelly. having more than one female as a mate at one time, breeding is confined to a particular season, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female, places a food item in a special place to be eaten later. The background color of the upperparts is a grizzled reddish brown, grading into rusty on the rump and flanks. Females do not disperse as far as males and have more relatives living close to their burrows. However, their occasional scatter-hoarding behavior can be beneficial in seedling establishment. IUCN 2012" (On-line). This intense foraging may also explain the home ranges of the eastern chipmunk. "Small Mammals and Agriculture: A Study of Effects and Responses" (On-line). Population number reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female. Juvenile females trill at a lower rate than adults, this may indicate their higher predation risk or smaller fitness gain. "How the Chipmunk Got His Stripes" (On-line). During a brief estrous period, females mate with multiple males. Most young do not breed until the spring following their birth. Range: Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Québec, eastern Saskatchewan Size: 66-115 g; 25.5-26.6 cm long Description: Eastern Chipmunks have greyish to reddish-brown fur with a distinguishing yellowish to … This material is based upon work supported by the Ethology, 106: 1057–1066. 2000. Between their dark lateral stripes, there is a narrow white band. The preferred habitat for this species is deciduous forests, forest edges, and wooded rocky ravines. It has been also introduced in Europe. In the early summer and early fall, their range is the largest. Unlike its other squirrel cousins, the chipmunk The eastern chipmunk is an omnivore that The belly and sides are buff to white, and the tail is blackish above and rusty below. In addition, these animals in general face habitat modification. (Baack and Switzer, 2000; Da Silva, et al., 2002; Saunders, 1988), Eastern chipmunks react to alarm calls by altering their foraging behavior and becoming more alert. Western chipmunks inhabit the western states as well as most of Canada. Eastern chipmunks defend their home ranges. Range and Habitat: The range includes much of eastern North America from southern Canada south to the Gulf of Mexico except for parts of the Southeast. October 31, 2012 Also eat some insects, bird eggs, and even small vertebrates like young mice. Both species showed signs of being very selective in choosing cache locations to prevent their caches from being robbed. Other chambers are dug for food storage and for disposal of excess soil from tunnel building. Journal of Mammalogy, May 2002, Vol. This species does not occupy the peninsula of Florida or the coastal plains region, from Florida to North Carolina. Illinois. Accessed December 10, 2020 at Chipmunk Geographic Range Of the 25 chipmunk species found on the planet, 24 are native to North America; the lone exception, the Siberian chipmunk is found in Asia. "Tamias striatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. This is mostly due to their size and the fact that they provide the most meat to a hunter. Eastern Chipmunks have a typical lifespan of 2-4 years in the wild and 6-8 years in captivity. 2: 546-552. Family: Sciuridae. The surface entrance to their burrow measures 5 cm across and does not contain excavated soil. Some dispersal, up to 0.9 km, will occur. "Tamias striatus. Their forefeet have four toes and their hindfeet have five. They are solitary and territorial, especially close to their burrow. Long-Eared Chipmunk Sometimes it’s hard to tell one kind of chipmunk from another. Litter sizes are dependent on resource availability and the age of the mother. Because olfactory cues are moisture dependent, scatter-hoarding in mesic climates are quickly pilfered. Eastern Chipmunk, Tamias Striatus Western Chipmunk, Neo-Tamias Chipmunks are often confused with the Thirteen-Lined Ground Squirrel . Eastern chipmunks defend their home ranges. Eastern chipmunks have large cheek pouches located on either side of their mouth. Alarm calls can be costly and the benefits must outweigh the costs to justify such behavior. Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. Eastern chipmunks also produce water thru energy metabolism of nutrients when water is scarce. Tamias striatus. The Eastern Chipmunk is 20.3 - 25.4 cm (8 - 10 in) in total length including its tail, which is just 7.6 - 10.2 cm (3 - 4 in) long. Eastern chipmunks establish a home range of roughly 40m, which consists of a tightly defended area around a burrow and a larger less defended area beyond 40m in which the animal tolerates others (Wilson and Ruff 1999; Baker 1983). Eastern Chipmunk ranges are also known to expand in autumn, but not as early as August (Forsyth and Smith 1973). Chipmunks are small rodents of the squirrel family with a total of 25 different species (see bottom of page), all part of the scientific family, in the family Sciuridae. Their range includes eastern Louisiana and the Florida Panhandle. The eastern chipmunk may be found statewide in Illinois. Eastern chipmunks are not noted for causing this type of damage. Eastern Chipmunks, in particular, are large among the chipmunk family, are usually reddish-brown with distinct black stripes running down their backs and white stripes above and below their eyes. Eastern chipmunks give three distinct calls: chipping, chucking and trilling. The primary function of trill calls is likely to warn nearby relatives of predators. Range and Habitat: Eastern chipmunks inhabit the extreme eastern part of Kansas, but are now only common in residential areas. Chipmunks live in elaborate underground burrow systems with interconnecting tunnels, a nest area, and an area for food storage. There exist several published accounts of swimming chipmunks (e.g., Wilber and Weidenbacher 1961; Dagg and Wilson 1972), but each of these studies consists of researchers dropping mammals into a pool of water to ascertain whether and how well they swim. at's%20Senior%20Seminar%20Research%20Page/. Eastern chipmunks eat insects and may be helpful in controlling the population of some pest species. Eastern chipmunks increase vigilance, run shorter more direct distances and delay emergence from burrows after hearing an alarm call, which suggest that the calls directly affected behavior. (Da Silva, et al., 2002; Kurta, 1995; Saunders, 1988), Eastern chipmunks produce two litters per year; one in early spring and one in midsummer. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. Order: Rodentia (Da Silva, et al., 2002; Kurta, 1995; Saunders, 1988), At birth, young weigh just 3 grams. When in another's territory, a chipmunk will be wary. forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality. The eastern chipmunk has light stripes above and below its eyes and it has pouched cheeks that it uses to store and carry food. (Kurta, 1995; Penner and Devenport, 2011), Eastern chipmunks are somewhat tolerant of humans and will sometimes burrow under buildings. The most commonly distributed chipmunk is the Least Chipmunk ( Accessed Males disperse farther than females. 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